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shipchar - DokuWiki

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General Characteristics of the USS King (DLG-10/DDG-41)

Life Cycle Statistics

<columns 80% 30% 40% →

Contract Awarded

Keel Laid

Launched

Commissioned

Decommissioned (AAW Upgrade)

Re-commissioned

Decommissioned

Stricken

Sold (J & L Metals)

<newcolumn> 18 November 1955

01 March 1957

06 December 1958

17 November 1960

30 April 1974

17 September 1977

28 March 1991

20 November 1992

15 April 1994

<newcolumn>

</columns>

Physical Characteristics

<columns 80% 30% 40% →

LOA (Length Over All)

LBP (Length Between Perpendiculars)

Beam

Draft

Navigational Draft

Displacement

<newcolumn>

512' 6“

490'

52' 5”

17' 9“

25' to 30'

5,648 Tons (full)

<newcolumn>

</columns>

Armament

<columns 80% 30% 30% 30%>

1960

Terrier Missiles

5"/54 Gun

3”/50 Gun

ASROC (RUR-5)

Torpedo (MK-46)

<newcolumn>

1977

Terrier Missiles

Standard Missiles

5"/54 Gun

ASROC (RUR-5)

Torpedo (MK-46)

<newcolumn>

1987

Terrier Missiles

Standard Missiles

5"/54 Gun

ASROC (RUR-5)

Torpedo (MK-46)

Harpoon (RGM-84)

</columns>

Propulsion and Engineering

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Boilers

Main Engines

SHP (Shaft Horse Power)

Fuel

Maximum Speed

Cruising Range

<newcolumn>

Babcock & Wilcox (4) 1200 psi Type “D”

Allis Chalmers (2)

85,000

256,000 Gallons NSFO

33.5 Knots

5,000 NM @ 20 Knots

<newcolumn>

</columns>

Definitions

Beam

The breadth of the ship at the broadest point is called the beam. Molded beam is measured amidships or at the widest section from the inside surface of the shell plating. Maximum beam or extreme breadth is the breadth at the widest part of the ship, and is equal to the molded breadth plus twice the plating thickness plus the width of fenders, overhanging decks, or other solid projections.

Displacement

The displacement is the weight of the water of the displaced volume of the ship; for static equilibrium it is the same as the weight of the ship and all cargo on board. Therefore, displacement is directly related to displacement volume and it can be found by multiplying the volume with the specific gravity of the water in any set of consistent units. For example if the volume is in cubic feet, we may divide it by 35 to get the displacement in long tons in seawater, or by 36 in fresh water.

Draft

The vertical distance between the waterline and the deepest part of the ship at any point along the length is the draft. Drafts are usually measured to the keel and are given as draft forward (Tf ), draft aft (Ta ) and mean draft (T or Tm ). A ship's forward and after draft marks are seldom at the perpendiculars and mean draft is not necessarily amidships; the slight errors introduced by using drafts at these points can be discounted if trim is not extreme. Molded drafts are measured from the molded baseline, while keel drafts are measured from a horizontal line though the lowest point on the bottom of the keel extended to intersect the forward and after perpendiculars. Navigational or extreme drafts indicate the extreme depth of sonar domes, propellers, pit swords, or other appendages which extend below the keel, and are therefore not used to calculate hydrostatic properties. Draft scales for keel drafts are usually placed on both sides of the ship at each end as near as practical to the respective perpendiculars. The external draft marks are generally Arabic numerals, with height and spacing arranged so that the vertical projection on the vessel of the numeral heights and vertical spacing between numerals are both six inches. The draft figures are placed so that the bottom of the figure indicates the keel draft. Drafts can thus be read to the nearest quarter-foot (3 inches) in relatively calm waters. This measurement can vary greatly depending on the amount of fuel, weapons, stores, etc. on board. The salinity of the water can also affect the ships buoyancy and therefore her draft. The official figures for draft are derived from the Designer's Water Line, which is determined during the design process. This number does not take into account the distance of any protrusions below the keel, such as the sonar dome. Navigational Draft is the term to define the shallowest water in which the ship can operate. The Navigational Draft has been published in several figures anywhere between 25' and 30'.

LBP (Length Between Perpendiculars)

The length of a vessel along the waterline from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular member. This was believed to give a reasonable idea of the ship's carrying capacity, as it excluded the small, often unusable volume contained in her overhanging ends. On some types of vessels this is, for all practical purposes, a waterline measurement. In a ship with raked stems, naturally this length changes as the draught of the ship changes, therefore it is measured from a defined loaded condition.

Maximum Speed

The maximum published speeds for ships have always been a point of contention. Many sailors are happy to boast that their ship was the fastest in the fleet or in their class, but there are many factors that influence the maximum achievable speed of any ship. A lightly loaded ship (without weapons, stores, and full fuel loads) in shallow water will achieve greater speeds than that same ship fully loaded in deep water. This is why the maximum stated speeds of many ships were achieved during builder's trials (often in a bay or on a river). The only meaningful measure of a ship’s maximum speed (determined by the designers) is under normal, fully loaded, deep water conditions. For the Farragut class, that number is 33.5 knots.

Here are some of the major factors that influence speed:

  • Load – This actually refers to 2 types of loads. The first is weapons, fuel, and stores. Without these loads, the ship will have a lighter displacement and therefore ride higher in the water. The higher the ship rides, the less surface area of the hull has contact with the water, providing lower resistance and drag. The second type of load is that from the ship’s systems. Basic physics tells us that you can’t get something from nothing, so any ship’s system (pumps, generators, etc.) takes power away from the main engines.
  • Hull - The single largest factor that influences speed is the hull itself. The calculations are quite complex, but there comes a point where the SHP that is required to overcome wave making resistance increases exponentially, requiring huge increases in power with only very small increases in speed. The propagation speed of deepwater waves is proportional to the wavelength of the generated waves, and the wavelength of a boat's wake is based on its waterline length — so there is a direct relationship between the waterline length (and thus wave propagation speed) and the rate at which drag increases. A simple way of considering wave-making resistance is to look at the hull in relation to its wake. At speeds lower than the wave propagation speed, the wave rapidly dissipates to the sides. As the hull approaches the wave propagation speed, however, the wake at the bow begins to build up faster than it can dissipate, and so it grows in amplitude. Since the water is not able to “get out of the way of the hull fast enough”, the hull, in essence, has to climb over or push through the bow wave. This results in an exponential increase in resistance with increasing speed.
  • Propellers – The propellers are the device that transfers the energy from the engines to the water. At low speeds, the propeller can efficiently transfer the energy with minimum turbulence, but as speeds increase, so does that turbulence. This turbulence, called cavitation, is characterized by the formation of air pockets at the trailing edge of the propeller. Since the next blade of the propeller has to go through that air pocket, much of the energy is lost there instead of being imparted to the water. To sum it up, the efficiency of the propeller decreases with the speed of rotation.

SHP (Shaft Horse Power)

Shaft horsepower is the power delivered to the propeller shaft of a ship.